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{\rtf1\ansi {\colortbl;\red0\green0\blue0;\red0\green0\blue255;\red0\green255\blue255;\red0\green255\blue0;\red255\green0\blue255;\red255\green0\blue0;\red255\green255\blue0;\red255\green255\blue255;}{\fonttbl{\f0\froman\cpg0\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f1\froman\cpg1252\fcharset0 Times New Roman;}{\f2\froman\cpg1251\fcharset204 Times New Roman;}{\f3\froman\cpg1250\fcharset238 Times New Roman;}{\f4\froman\cpg1257\fcharset186 Times New Roman;}{\f5\froman\cpg1254\fcharset162 Times New Roman;}{\f6\froman\cpg1253\fcharset161 Times New Roman;}{\f7\froman\cpg1255\fcharset177 Times New Roman;}}{\stylesheet {\sbasedon222\f1\fs20 Normal;}}\paperw12240\paperh15840\margl2226\margr4376\margt1440\margb720 \sectd \sbknone\pgwsxn12240\pghsxn15840\marglsxn2226\margrsxn4376\margtsxn1440\margbsxn720\cols1\colsx60 \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li475\fi0\ri0\sb0\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-3\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs22 RTGVEDIC INDIA: TRIBAL DIVISIONS & WARS    29}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li61\fi0\ri22\sb223\sa0\sl-241\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 (Ganges) and the Yamuna (Jumna) are mentioned only \expndtw-1 twice or thrice, which shows that though Aryan bands \expndtw2 had advanced towards the Gangetic Doab, it was still \expndtw6 an unfamiliar land. The sea was unknown to them, \expndtw-1 the word \i samudra \i0 being used to denote large expanses \expndtw0 of water. The Himalaya or Himavant mountains are \expndtw9 alluded to, but not the Vindhyas or the Narmada \expndtw16 river. Evidently, therefore, the Aryans had not \expndtw0 yet established settlements in the southern direction. \expndtw-4 Other evidences are also in accord with the conclusions \expndtw3 stated above. Thus, for instance, the \i JLigveda \i0 men\-\expndtw4 tions the lion, but not the tiger, the denizen of the swampy jungles of Bengal. That the Aryans had not yet advanced to the eastern regions is further proved \expndtw5 by the absence of any mention of rice. We must, \expndtw-3 however, urge caution against undue emphasis on such \i\expndtw-8 argumentum ex silentio, \i0 and as an illustration of its dangers \expndtw-1 it may be pointed out that salt, although abounding in Northern Punjab, is not even once mentioned in the \i\charscalex88\expndtw-12 'Rdgveda.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li86\fi0\ri0\sb191\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i\cf1\charscalex88\expndtw8\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 Tribal Divisions and Wars}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\qj\li61\fi468\ri0\sb173\sa0\sl-238\slmult0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-2\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 The Rigvedic Aryans were not a homogeneous lot. They were divided into several tribes, the most impor\-\expndtw5 tant having been the five allied ones, viz., Anus, \expndtw0 Druhyus, Yadus, Turvasas, and Purus, who dwelt on \expndtw-4 either side the Saraswati. Besides' these, mention is also \expndtw-1 made o\loch\af0\hich\af0\dbch\f1\cchs0 \'a3\hich\af0\dbch\af1\loch\f0\cchs0  the Bharatas (later merged into the Kurus), \expndtw-2 Tritsus, Srinjayas, Krivis, and other minor tribes. Quite often, they were fighting among themselves, and one of \expndtw2 the notable events of Rigvedic history was the great \expndtw4 battle on the Parusm, in which Sudas, king of the \expndtw0 Bharatas, defeated with heavy losses the confederate \expndtw-4 tribes led by ten kings under the guidance of VisVamitra.}\par \pard \plain \cbpat8\ql\li0\fi0\ri0\sb284\sa0 \f1\fs20{\b0\i0\cf1\charscalex100\expndtw-10\f1\cchs0\lang1033\fs25 I, p. 79)-}\par }